Soccer helps build strong bones during growth: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Osteopenia and osteoporosis are important diseases worldwide and are characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and microarchitectural deterioration . These diseases appear mainly in the elderly causing morbidity, mortality, and high economic costs to society . Nevertheless, childhood and adolescence have been described as critical periods to counteract them because 26% of the adult bone mineral content (BMC) is accumulated at the ages of approximately 12 and 14 years in females and males , respectively. Thus, appropriate bone mass accretion during growth seems fundamental to reduce the risk of suffering bone fractures in advanced age .